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Thales 著作残篇  

2010-10-25 20:46:28|  分类: 阿康论生活 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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引自:Reginald E. Allen的Greek Philosophy:Thales to Aristotle

据说,没有完整的前苏格拉底著作得以留下来,我们所拥有的残篇来源于苏以后的作者的引言。这些引言主要的来源有:
A.
A.哲学家
1.   Plato
2.   Aristotle
3.   Stoics
4.   Skeptics, such as SextusEmpricus
5.   Neo-Platonists, especiallyProclus, Alexander, Simplicius
B.
Doxographical Tradition
1.
Theophrastus
2.
Diogenes Laertius
3 A.D.
3.
Plutarch
1-2 A.D.
4.
John Stobaeus
15 A.D.










米利都学派Milesians
泰勒斯 Thale


1.    一个色雷斯Thracian女仆说,曾嘲弄泰勒斯因走路时太关注于天象,而疏忽了脚下的状况,因而掉入了陷阱中。(出自柏拉图Plato Theaetetus


2.    泰勒斯,关注到来年橄榄将获大丰收,于是他在冬天时以低价,雇入了大量的压榨机,并于来年收获季节以高价,雇出这些压榨机,从而获取大量利润。以此证明哲学家若是愿意,他们可以获得财富,但这并不是他们所感兴趣的,他们正真感兴趣的是所谓的知识或者智慧。(出自 Aristotle, Politics


3.    在米底人Medes和吕底亚人Lydians 第六年的战争中的一天,双方作战时,忽然白天变成了黑夜。据人说对这一事件泰勒斯作出了预测。(出自 Aristotle, Politics)据人说,有人据此推测,指日食,发生于585 B.C.


4.    有人说,泰勒斯是第一个研究天象,和预测日食的人,就如Eudemus 在天文学的历史中所写到的。HeraclitusDemoclitus 口称为其见证人。HerodotusXenophanes 口称对其表示敬意。(出自柏拉图Diogenes Laertius,I, 23


5.    有人说,归功于泰勒斯的功绩,观察发现了北斗七星的天象,这一发现指引了腓尼基Pheonician 人航海时确认方向。(出自Callimachus Iambus, I, 52, 191 Pfeiffer)


6.    有人说,在Ionia 遭到战败破坏前,泰勒斯,米利都人,腓尼基人的后裔,建议爱奥尼亚人:建立一个独立的立法机关,并将其所在地建在Toes, 因其在爱奥尼亚的中部,而其他城市仍在原地居住,并成为一个共同群体。(出自HerodotusI170)


7.    当他来到Halys 河,他帮助了吕底亚国王Croesus渡过了他的军队。(出自Herodotus, I, 75)


8.    有人说,泰勒斯说地面居于水之上,飘动,尽管同样的论述不适用于,象水支持地面那样之于水本身。


9.    泰勒斯说,世界是由水支持的,并象船一样航行于水上,当我们说到晃动时,那其实是因为水的运动所致。(出自Seneca, qu Nat, III, 14)


10.   有人声称,必须有某些自然的质料,一种或多于一种,由这些质料,其他的东西得以成为现实。泰勒斯,这类哲学观点的发现者,声称那质料是水。(出自Aristotle Metaphyics 983b 6)


11.   泰勒斯看上去,象他们所说的那样,设想灵魂是有活力的,如果他说磁石有灵魂,我说他指的是磁石能移动铁块。(出自Aristotle, de anima 405a



12.   Aristotle Hippieas 说,泰勒斯将灵魂也赋予那些所谓的非活的物体,他以磁石和琥珀作为例子。(出自Diogenes Laertius, I ,411a 7)


13.  有人声称,灵魂和宇宙搅和在一起,也许泰勒斯我想也认为所有的东西都充满着神。(出自Aristotle, de anima 411a 7)


14.  泰勒斯说,世界的意识是神,所有东西的总和是有灵魂的,充满了精神,通过基本元素水渗透到神的力量中,而使之移动。(出自Aetius, I, 7, 11)


定义:希腊原著之英译文:


A witty and attractive Thracianservant-girl said to have mocked Thales for falling into a well while he waseager to know the things in the sky, but that what was behind him and just byhis feet escaped his notice.(Plato, Theaetetus 174a)



When they reproached him because of hispoverty, as though philosophy were no use, it is said that, having observedthrough his study of the heavenly bodies that there would be a large olivecrop, he raised a little capital while it was still winter and paid deposits onall the olive presses in Miletus and Chios, hiring them cheaply because no onebid against him. When the appropriate time came there was a sudden rush ofrequest for the presses. He then hired them out on his own terms and so made alarge profit, thus demonstrating that it is easy for philosophers to be rich,if they wish, but that it is not in this that they are interested.(Aristotle,Politics 1259a)



In the sixth year of the war, which theMedes and Lydians had carried on with equal fortunes, an engagement took placein which it turned out that when the battle was in progress the day suddenlybecame night. This alteration of the day Thales the Milesian foretold to theIonians, setting as its limit this year in which the change actuallyoccurred.(Aristotle, Politics, I,74)



Some say he was the first to study theheavenly bodies and to foretell eclipses of the sun and solstices, as Eudemussays in his history of astronomy, for which reason both Xenophanes andHerodotus express and admiration; and both Heraclitus and Democritus bearwitness for him.(Diogenes Laertius, I ,23)


For the victory belonged to Thales, who wasclever in judgment not least because he was said to have measured out thelittle stars of the Wain, by which the Phoenicians sail.(Callimachus Iambus, I,52, 191 Pfeiffer)


Useful also was the opinion, before thedestruction of Ionia, of Thales, a man of Miletus, being a Phoenician by ultimatedescent, who advised the Ionians to have a single deliberative chamber, sayingthat it should be in Teos, for this was in the middle of Ionia; the othercities should continue to be inhabited but should be regarded as if they weredemes.(Herodotus I 170)


When he came to the Halys river, Croesusthen, as I say, put his army across by the existing bridges; but, according tothe common account of the Greeks, Thales the Milesian transferred the arny forhim. For it is said that Croesus was at a loss how his army should cross theriver, since these bridges did not yet exist at this period; and that Thales,who was present in the army, made the fiver, which flowed on the left of thearmy, flow on the right hand also. He did so in this way; beginning upstream ofthe army he dug a deep channel, giving it a crescent shape, so that it shouldflow around the back of where the army was and passing the camp should flowinto its old course once more. The result was that as soon as the river wasdivided it became fordable in both parts.(Herodotus, I, 75)
Others say that the earth rest on water. Forthis is the most ancient account we have received, which they say was given byThales the Milesian, that it stays in place through floating like a log or someother such thing for none of these rests by nature on air, but on water –asthouth th same argument did not apply to the water supporting the earth as tothe earth itself.(Aristotle, de caelo 294a 28)


For Thales said that the world is held up bywater and rides like a ship, and when it is said to quake it is actuallyrocking because of the water’s movement.(Seneca, qu Nat, III, 14)


Most of the first philosophers thought thatprinciples in the form of matter were the only principles of all things: forthe original soruce of all existing things, that from which a thing firstcomes-into-being and into which it is finally destroyed, the substancepersisting but changing its qualities, this they declare is the element andfirst principle of existing things, and for this reason that there is no absolutecoming-to-be or passing away, on the ground that such a nature is alwayspreserved… for there must be some natural substance, either one or more thanone, from which the other things come-into-being, while it is preserved. Overthe number, however, and the form of this kind of principle they do not allagree; but Thales, the founder of this is type of philosophy, says it is waterand therefore declared that the earth is on water, perhaps taking thissupposition from seeing the nurture of all things to be moist, and the warmitself coming-to-be from this and living by this that from which theycome-to-be being the principle of all things-taking the supposition both fromthis and from the seeds of all things.(Aristotle Metaphyics 983b 6)


Thales, too seems, from what they relate, tohave supposed that the soul was something kinetic, if he said that themagnesian stone possesses soul because it moves iron.(Aristotle, de anima 405a)


Aristotle and Hippieas say that he gave ashare of soul even to inanimate objects, using magnesian stone and amber asindications.(Diogenes Laertius, I ,411a 7)


And some say that soul is intermingled in theuniverse, for which reason, perhaps, Thales also thought that all things arefull of gods.(Aristotle, de anima 411a 7)


Thales said that the mind of the world isgod, and that the sum of things is besouled, and full of daimons ,spirits;right through the elemental moisture there penetrates a divine power that movesit.(Aetius, I, 7, 11)

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