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Anaximander 著作残篇  

2010-10-25 20:51:28|  分类: 阿康论生活 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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引自:Reginald E. Allen的Greek Philosophy:Thales to Aristotle

b.Anaximander
1.
阿那克西曼德,米利都人,泰勒斯的弟子,第一个勇于将他所居住的世界画在牌碑上;他之后的HECATAEUS,米利都人,一个旅行者,将这个地图画地更为精确,所以这一事件成为一项壮举的来源。(Agathemerus I,1)


2
我笑了,当我看到许多人在画大地的纵横线路,至今他们中还没有人能够将这事明智地加以解释;他们画水围着大地流,尽管他们是用指南针画图的,并且将亚洲和欧洲画地一样。(Herodotus IV,36)


3.
阿那克西曼德,Praxiades的儿子,米利都人,哲学家,泰勒斯的男亲属,学生和后继者。他第一个发明了昼夜平分时,至点和计时器,并声称大地居于中间。他介绍了日冕指时针的用法,并通常以画出地理的概貌而著名。(Suda, s.v.)


4.
在那些声称宇宙是一个整体,运动的和无限的人中,阿,说,存在物的原则和元素是不确定的。据说他是第一个声称这一物质定律的人。他说即不是水也不是其他所谓的基本元素,而是某些其他不确定的自然界之物,由此所有的天体和世界得以生成。存在物得以生成的来源,在存在物毁灭后仍归于他,这是根据需要,根据时间的估计,他们因为他们的不正义而彼此进行补偿。阿,是以一种很诗意的方式来谈论的。(Simplicius, Phys. 24,13)


1.

物理学家给出了两种解释,第一种,认为或者是三种基本元素气,火,水之一或者是某些比火厚实,比气稀薄的,通过稀释和凝聚而生成其他的东西。但是另一些人说,相反的从显现出来的“一”中分离出来,象阿,和那些说有一和多的人,如Empedocles Anaxagoras,他们俩也都赞成其余的东西从这混合物中分离出来。(Aristotle,Physics 204b 22)


2.

基本元素不是单一的,有人声称即不是气也不是水是基本元素,以致于其他元素不会因此而遭到摧毁,因为这些基本元素是互相对立的,比如气是冷的,水是湿的,火是热的,如果其中之一是无限的,那其余的将会变得为其所摧毁。但是,他称所谓无限的基本质料是不同于上述那些元素的。(Aristotle, Physics 204b 22)


3.

有些人声称,对无限的基质而言,没有开始,但这看上去又是其他东西的开始,包围并驾驭着其他东西。这些人也没有假设其他的因素,比如意识和爱,以凌驾于无限的基质之上。阿和大多数自然思考者说,那因素是神,因为神是不朽的和不可摧毁的。(Aristotle, Physics 203b 7)


4.

阿,说,来自于永恒的热和冷的丰饶的东西,从世界的生成中分离出来。空气的外面包着一团球状的火焰,环绕着大地,就象树皮包着树一样。在圈状环绕大地处折断的地方,太阳,月亮和其他星星得以形成。(Ps.-Plutarch, Strom 2)


5.

他说地球外形是圆柱状的,他的深度是他宽度的三分之一。(Ps.-Plutarch, Strom 2)


6.

他的外形是曲线状的,圆的,象鼓,我们在一个平面上走,另一面在反面。(Hippolytus, Ref. I 6, 3)


7.

阿,说,大地待在原地不动,因为他的保持平衡。因为他必须建造在中心,和边界的距离相等,在上,下,或者边缘的地方没有一点突出的地方,他不可能在同一时间向相反方向移动,所以由于需要,他必须待在原地不动。(Aristotle, de caele 295b 10)


8.

天体由世界的中的火分离出来,生成一圈火,并由气包围着。天体有呼吸孔,象管状的通道,从这通道,天体得以被看见。当日食出现时,那是呼吸孔被堵塞了的缘故。月亮的圆缺也是因为呼吸孔的敞开和堵塞的缘故。太阳的周长是地球周长的27倍,是月亮的18倍;太阳的位置最高,而定在空中的星星位置最低。(Hippolytus, Ref. I, 6, 4-5)


9.

关于打雷,闪电,霹雳,旋风,台风,阿,说,这些事情发生都是风的结果:当这些事情在厚云层内发生时,他们会受迫,从云层中迸发出来;当他们便稀薄,变轻时,迸发出来时会协有噪声,同时背对云层的黑暗处会有闪电。(Aetius III,3,1-2)


10.

起先,包裹大地的区域都是湿的,但是后来被太阳晒干了,其散发出来的部分形成了风和日月的变化。他们说,剩下没有晒干的地方是海,而总有一天海也会被晒干的。(Aristotle, Meteor. 353b 6)


11.

阿,说,最初的生物是在湿气中出生的,包着刺人的树皮;当他们的年龄增长后,他们到干一点的地方生活,当树皮脱落后,他们过了一段短时间的不同的生活。(Aetius V ,19, 4)


12.

还有,他说人类是由另一种生物进化而来;因为其他的生物都能在较短的时间内有自我生存的能力,而人类必须经过很长一段时间的护养。由于此原因,如果他最初就是独自生活的,那他将不可能活下去。(Ps.-Plutarch, Strom 2)



定义;希腊原著的英译文;

Anaximander

Anaximander the Milesian, a disciple of Thales, first dared to draw theinhabited world on a tablet; after him Hecataeus the MIlesian, a much travelledman, made the map more accureate, so that it became a source ofwonder.(Agathemerus I,1)


I smile when I see that many have drawncircuits of the earth, up now, and none of them has explained the mattersensibly; they draw Ocean running around the earth, which is drawn as thoughwith a compass, and make Asia equal to Europe.(Herodotus IV,36)


Anaximander son of Praxiades, of Miletus,philosopher, was a kinsman, pupil and successor of Thales. He first discoveredthe equinox and solstices and hour-indicators, and that the earth lies in thecenter. He introduced the gnomon and in general made known and outline ofgeometry.(Suda, s.v.)


Of those who say that it is one, moving, andinfinite, Anaximander, son of Praxiades, a Milesian, the successor and pupil ofThales, said that the principle and element of existing things was theindefinite, being the first to introduce name of the material principle. Hesays that it is neither water nor any other of the so-called elements, but someother indefinite nature, from which came into being all the heavens and theworld in them. And is that into which destruction, too, happens “according tonecessity; for they pay penalty and retribution to each other for theirinjustice according to the assessment of Time” as he describes it in theserather poetical terms.(Simplicius, Phys. 24,13)


Two types of explanation are given by thephysicists. Those who have made the subsisting body one, either one of thethree elements-air, fire, water or something else which is thicker than fireand finer than air, generate the
rest bycondensation and rarefaction, making it into many….but the others say that theopposites are separated out from the one, being present in it, as Anaximandersays and all who say that there are one and many, like Enpedocles andAnaxagoras; for these , too, separate out the rest from themixture.(Aristotle,Physics 204b 22)


Nor can the infinite body be one and simple,whether it be, as some say, that which is beside the elements, from which theygenerate the elements, or whether it be expressed simply. For there are somepeople who make what is beside the elements the infinite, and not air or water,so that the rest be not destroyed by their infinite substance; for the elementsare opposed to each other(for example, air is cold, water moist, and fire hot),and if one of those were infinite the rest would already have been destroyed. Butas it is , they say that the infinite is different from these , and that theycame into being from it.(Aristotle, Physics 204b 22)


Of the infinite there is no beginning…. Butthis seems to be the beginning of the other things, and to surround all thingsand steer all, as all those say who do not postulate other causes, such as mindor love, above and beyond the infinite. And this is the divine; for it isimmortal and indestructible, as Anaximander says and most of the physicalspeculators.(Aristotle, Physics 203b 7)
Others say that the opposites are separatedout from the one, being present in it, as Anaximander says and all who say thatthere are one and many, like Empedocles and Anaxagoras; for these, too,separate out the rest from the mixture.(Aristotle, Physics 187a 20)


Anaximander says that that which isproductive from the eternal of hot and cold was separated off at thecoming-to-be of this world, and that a kind of sphere of flame from this wasformed round the air surrounding the earth, like bark around a tree. When thiswas broken off and shut off in certain circles, the sun and the moon and thestars were formed.(Ps.-Plutarch, Strom 2)


He says that the earth is cylindrical inshape, and that its depth is a third of its width. (Ps.-Plutarch, Strom 2)


Its shape is curved, round , similar to thedrum of a column; of its flat surfaces we walk on, and the other is on theopposite side.(Hippolytus, Ref. I 6, 3)


There are some who say, like Anaximanderamong the ancients that the earth stays still because of its equilibrium. Forit behooves that which is established at the center, and is equally related tothe extremes, not to be borne one whit more either up or down or to the sides;and it is impossible for it to move simultaneously in opposite directions, sothat it stays fixed by necessity.(Aristotle, de caele 295b 10)


The heavenly bodies come into being as acircle of fire separated off from the fire in the world, and enclosed by air. Thereare breathing-holes, certain pipe-like passages, at which the heavenly bodiesshow themselves; accordingly eclipses occur when the breathing-holes areblocked up. The moon is seen now waxing, now waning, according to the blockingor opening of the channels. The circle of the sun is 27 times the size of theearth, that of the moon 18 times; the sun is highest, and the circle of thefixed stars are lowest.(Hippolytus, Ref. I, 6, 4-5)


On thunder, lightning, thunderbolts, whirlwinds,and typhoons. Anaximander says that all these things occur as a result of wind:for whenever it is shut up in athick cloud and then bursts out forcibly,through its fineness and lightness, then the bursting makes the noise, whilethe rift against the blackness of the cloud makes the flash.(Aetius III,3,1-2)


For first of all the whole are around theearth is moist, but being dried by the sun the part that is exhaled makes windsand turnings of the sun and moon, they say, while that which is left is sea;therefore they think that the sea is actually becoming less through being driedup, and that some time it will end up by end up by ending all dry.(Aristotle,Meteor. 353b 6)


Anaximander said that the first livingcreatures were born in moisture in thorny barks: and that as their ageincreased they came forth on to drier part and when the bark had broken off,they lived a different kind of life for a short of time.(Aetius V ,19, 4)


Further he says that in the beginning man wasborn from creatures of a different kind; because other creatures are soonself-supporting, but man alone needs prolonged nursing. For this reason hewould not have survived if this had been his original form.(Ps.-Plutarch, Strom2)

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