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Anaximenes 著作残篇  

2010-10-25 20:53:19|  分类: 阿康论生活 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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引自:Reginald E. Allen的Greek Philosophy:Thales to Aristotle

 
c. Anaximenes
1. 阿那克西米尼 Anaximenes,Eurystratus的儿子,是Anaximander的学生。他说,世界的基质是气,是无限的;星星并不是在大地下移动,而是围绕着大地运动。他是以简单的爱奥尼亚语进行演讲的。(Diogenes Laertius II, 3)

2. 他说,基本的大自然是一个整体,并由无限基质组成,就象阿那克西曼德说的那样,但他并不象阿那克西曼德那样对基质不加定义,他将其定义为气;他经由稀释和凝聚以区分自然界的物质。当气变得稀薄一点,他就成为火;变得稍厚实一点,他就变成风;再厚实一点,他就变成水,然后是大地,然后石头,其他的东西由此得以形成。他还认为运动是永久的,变化通过运动而形成。(Theophrastus ap. Simplicium Phys. 24, 26)

3. 他说,无限的气是基质。万物和神由其形成。气的形式有:当气处于最稳定状态时,他是看不见的,但是他被加热,冷却,潮湿,移动后,他的外形会由此被揭示出来。当他变得厚实或稀薄后,他的外形是不同的;当他变稀薄后,他就变成火;当他变厚实后,他就变成风,然后是水,再厚实就变成大地,然后是石头。结果由基质生成的物质最有影响力的的组成部分是互相对立的,冷的和热的。(Hippolytus Ref. I, 7, 1)

4. 如阿那克西米尼那样考虑冷的性质,我们既不考虑冷也不考虑热,是物质的基本属性,而将其看作在物质发生变化后的一种普通倾向。因为他说,物质被压缩后将变冷;反之,被稀释后将变热。因此,他说,以前的某个格言是合理的,这一格言是:人的嘴巴里呼出冷的和热的气:因为经由嘴唇呼吸的空气被压缩后,变得冷了,但是当嘴角放松时,气由嘴角逸出,并由此变化而变的热了。(Plutarch , de prim. Frig. 7, 947f)

5. 阿那克西米尼说,气是神。(Aetius I ,7, 13)

6. 所有的事物经由气的凝聚和稀释得以形成。运动,事实上是经由永久的运动而得以存在的;他说,当气沉降后,形成大地,非常地平坦,因此大地驾在气上,太阳,月亮和其他天体由大地产生出来。至少,他声称,太阳是由大地产生出来的,但太阳通过快速的运动而得到高效的热量。(Ps.- Plutarch strom 3)

7. 天体是经由大地的呼吸,产生上升的气而形成的。当呼吸变少后,气因稀释而变成了火,火上升后,星星就形成了(Hippolytus, Ref. I 7,5)

8. 大地是平坦的,由气产生的,类似的,太阳,月亮和其他天体得以产生,这些天体都驾在平坦的气上,以热的形式上升形成。(Hippolytus, Ref. I 7,4)

9. 他说,天体并不是在大地的下面运动,而是围绕着大地运动,就象转动戴在我们头上的帽子那样,太阳并不是藏在大地的下面的,而是在离我们很远的地方覆盖在大地的上方。(Hippolytus, Ref. I 7,6)

10.他说得和阿那克西曼德说的一样,当气变厚实了,就有云生成,当气进一步被压缩,他就变成雨,当降下的水结合在一起后,他就变成雹子,当水份和风结合后,就形成了雪。(Aetius III, 3, 2)

11.他说,大地通过被浸湿和干燥后,而被裂开,高的物体的顶部由此晃动,更有甚者而由此坍塌。因此,地震在干旱的期间或者洪水泛滥的期间都会有发生。对干旱的情况而言,大地被干燥和裂开,而过多的水会将大地淹塌。(Aristotle, Meteor. 365b 6)

12.他,米利都人,声称,气是存在物的基质,万物由此基质产生和瓦解。比如灵魂,他说,由气生成,和我们结合在一起,并控制我们,所以风包围了整个世界。(Aetius I ,3, 4)


定义:下文为希腊原著之英译文
Anaximenes
1.        Anaimenes, son of Eurystratus of Miletus, was a pupil of Anaximander…. He said that the material principle was air and infinite; and that the stars move, not under earth, but round it. He used simple and unsuperfluous Ionic speech.(Diogenes Laertius II, 3)

2.        Anximenes….also says that the underlying nature is one and infinite like Anaximander, but not undefined as Anaximander said but define, for he identifies it as air; and it differs in its substantial nature by rarity and density. Being made finer it becomes fire, being made thicker it becomes wind, then cloud, then when thickened still more water, then earth, then stones; and the rest come into being from these. He , too, makes motion eternal, and says that change, also, comes about through it.(Theophrastus ap. Simplicium Phys. 24, 26)

3.        Anaximenes said that infinite air was principle, from which the things that are becoming, and that are, and that shall be , and gods and things divine, all come into being, and the rest from its products. The form of air is of this kind: whenever it is most equable it is invisible to sight, but is revealed by cold and the hot and the damp and by movement. It is always in motion: for things that change do not change unless there be movement. Through becoming denser or finer it has different appearances; for when it is dissolved into what is finer it becomes fire, while winds again, are air that is becoming condensed, and cloud is produced from air by felting. When it is condensed still more, water is produced ; with a further degree of condensation earth is produced, and when condensed as far as possible, stone. The result is that the most influential components of generation are opposites, hot and cold.(Hippolytus Ref. I, 7, 1)

4.        As Anaximenes thought of cold, let us leave neither the cold nor the hot as belonging to substance, but as common dispositions of matter that supervene on changes; for he says that matter which is compressed and concealed is cold, while that which is fine and relaxed using this word is hot. Therefore, he said , the dictum is not an unreasonable one, that man releases both warmth and cold from his mouth: for the breath is chilled by being compressed and condensed with the lips, but when the mouth is loosened the breath escapes and becomes warm through its rarity.(Plutarch , de prim. Frig. 7, 947f)

5.        Anximenes says that the air is god.(Aetius I ,7, 13)

6.        All things are produced by a kind of condensation, and again rarefaction, of air. Motion, indeed, exists from everlasting ; he says that when the air felts, there first of all comes into being the earth, quite flat-therefore it accordingly rides on the air; and sun and moon and the remaining heavenly bodies have their source of generation from earth. At least , he declares the sun to be earth, but that through the rapid motion it obtains heat in great sufficiency.(Ps.- Plutarch strom 3)

7.        The heavenly bodies have come into being from earth and through the exhalation arising from it ; when the exhalation is rarefied fire comes into being , and from fire raised on high the stars are composed.(Hippolytus, Ref. I 7,5)

8.        The earth is flat, being borne upon air, and similarly sun, moon, and the other heavenly boeies, which are all fiery, ride upon the air through their flatness. (Hippolytus, Ref. I 7,4)

9.        He says that the heavenly bodies do not move under the earth as others have supposed, but round it , just as if a felt cap turns round our head; and that the sun is hidden not by being under earth, but through being covered by the higher parts of the earth and through its increased distance from us. (Hippolytus, Ref. I 7,6)

10.        He said the same as Anaximander, adding what happens in the case of sea, which flashes when cleft by oars-Anaximenes said that clouds occur when the air is further thickened; when it is compressed further rain is squeezed out, and hail occurs when the descending water coalesces, snow when some windy portion is included together with the moisture.(Aetius III, 3, 2)

11.        He says that the earth, through being drenched and dried off, break asunder, and is shaken by the peaks that are thus broken off and fall in. therefore earthquakes happen in periods both of drought and again of excessive rain; for in droughts, as has been said, it dries up and cracks, and being made over-moist by the waters it crumbles apart.(Aristotle, Meteor. 365b 6)

12.        He of Miletus, declared that air is principle of existing things; for from it all things come-to-be and into it they are again dissolved. As soul, he says, being air holds us together and controls us, so wind air enclose the whole world.(Aetius I ,3, 4)

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